Autophagy in sustainable agriculture and forestry: Autophagy is suggested to play a key role in almost all aspects of plant growth and development, including seed development and germination, photomorphogenesis, plastids development, mineral nutrition, hormonal responses, biotic and abiotic responses, senescence, reproduction and fruit ripening. For instance in rice, autophagy-defective mutants with non-functional ATG7 and ATG9 alleles showed complete sporophytic male sterility and limited anther dehiscence under normal growth conditions, suggesting that autophagy is essential for gametophytic development.

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